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汗蜂揭示社会行为基因基础

商业新闻 2018-10-24 16:534290网站小编

汗蜂帮助研究人员理解社会行为的基因基础。图片来源:BRIAN VALENTINE

本报讯生物学一个经久不衰的谜题是一些动物——从人类到蜜蜂——是如何变得很会社交的。如今,一项研究表明,在不起眼的汗蜂中,一个单独基因的表达发生改变或许决定了哪些汗蜂是独居者,哪些擅长社交。这个此前同人类自闭症联系在一起的基因,还同诸如小鼠、蝗虫等动物的社交行为存在关联。最新发现使科学家朝展示社会行为的共同进化基石更进了一步。

上世纪50年代,法国生物学家Cécile Plateaux-Quénu记录了一种汗蜂——隧蜂的两种不同行为。生活在法国较冷地区的雌性隧蜂通常并没有“助手”,较温暖地区的雌性隧蜂则拥有“助手”。同时,在较温暖地区,雌性隧蜂会产下两组卵——第一组孵化的隧蜂会照料第二组卵。Plateaux-Quénu的研究还证实,这种差异会被继承。

20年后,如今在美国普林斯顿大学工作的进化遗传学家Sarah Kocher决定追踪Plateaux-Quénu的开创性研究。她从法国3个寒冷地区和3个温暖地区收集了150只蜜蜂。当时还是哈佛大学博士后的Kocher和同事分析了这些蜜蜂的DNA,以寻找可能解释上述两种行为的遗传差异。

在测序并比较了6组隧蜂的基因组后,研究人员发现了以62种基因为核心的200处差异。其中,一个被称为syntaxin 1a的基因引起了人们的注意。它负责创建突触融合蛋白—— 一种在神经细胞之间传递信号时发挥重要作用的蛋白质。Kocher介绍说,这个同诸多动物社会行为联系起来的基因,将群居和独居汗蜂最好地区分开来。

随后,Kocher测量了这个基因在群居和独居汗蜂中的活跃性。该基因在群居汗蜂中的活跃度约是独居汗蜂的15倍。研究人员在日前出版的《自然—通讯》杂志上报告了这一成果。(徐徐)

相关论文信息:DOI:10.1126/science.aav7683

《中国科学报》 (2018-10-24 第2版 国际)


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